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I have a question about Non-IP device communication.

From my research, I learnt CoAP and DDS can be used for Device-to-Device communication.

MQTT is useful for Device-to-Gateway or Device-to-Service or Cloud.

My question is, how can a non-IP device (communicating over a simple RF or Bluetooth, etc.. without IP) use these protocols?

MQTT uses TCP/IP

COAP, DDS, MQTT-SN use UDP/IP

So that means they use IP. How is this possible? Are there other protocols that do not use TCP or UDP for D2D and Device-to-Gateway?

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    Related: Is MQTT protocol appropriate for transmitting sensor readings over BLE? (this at least partially addresses your idea regarding MQTT-SN only running over IP). On a related note, see also Using MQTT-SN over BLE with the BBC micro:bit on an external blog, which shows this in practice. – Aurora0001 Nov 5 '17 at 18:11
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    Thanks for sharing these. If you can answer I wanna ask that, Answer says: "MQTT-SN can be run over nearly any protocol that can pass data". How is this possible? It uses UDP. Can we use UDP for non-ip devices? – Creed Nov 5 '17 at 18:22
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    The important question is what do you loose (like addressability) when you move away from IP based protocols and how are these things replaced (when needed) when you move to some other transport. – hardillb Nov 5 '17 at 18:24
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    MQTT-SN does not need UDP, it's just a packet format, and it is just that the reference implementation uses UDP. – hardillb Nov 5 '17 at 18:26
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    I don't really get you, but I ask generally. There are still many simple Non-IP devices. I mean them. How do they communicate (over messaging)? – Creed Nov 5 '17 at 18:28
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The protocols you mentioned are application layer protocols and they run over TCP or UPD, you can not use an application layer without IP.

But you can use an implementation of MQTT for Sensors called MQTT-SN it works for M2M or D2D.

You can check for the protocol specifications here also here is the Eclipse project for MQTT-SN

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