I have asked a question about Port Forwarding for non IP IoT Devices
I understand that the hub is the controller of non IP devices attached to it, and each group of devices with the same wireless technology have a common controller.
How technically can a Z-Wave device for example could be accessed from the outside through his controller (hub), does this happen through port forwarding (if it is, how this is done technically), or is there other techniques (e.g., through cloud-based platform, through hub-based platform, hole punching, UPnP….),
I am just confused, because I want to know if non IP devices are also susceptible to be attacked from the outside (e.g., Mirai Attack), because since they are both protected behind the gateway and their controller, they are less susceptible than direct connected IP devices that might be attacked only through NAT traversal using default passwords.