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I am building a project which involves the application of geo-fencing at the international borders. An alert is received when the user is near the border. an email is sent to the coastal guards as well. I know that internet connectivity or getting tower signal is very difficult at the sea and countries are still trying to figure out how to solve this issue. Is there any other way, this can be solved?

I have a few thoughts. I am sure none of them are feasible nor effective. these are all only my views. so I thought about underwater optical fiber cables which are used by ACT network and all. so can we do something with that? I also researched many countries like China and America are trying to establish some centres in the sea which can give connectivity in the sea by establishing towers in them. I also thought about using developing satellite phones so that they can be used more than just to make a call.

My teacher suggested increasing the bandwidth of the towers near the sea, though I know it is bad, to reach longer distance

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    What research have you already done? – hardillb Apr 11 '19 at 10:45
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Water is a natural attenuator of electromagnetic waves, also you must take into account the obstruction of the Fresnel zones, knowing the frequency of the Wi-Fi wave and the distance of the link. One way to counteract this effect is to increase the height of the antenna.

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    True. but increasing the height of the antennae won't be economical. So I just want to know, if there is any , even a small solution for this. of course in the sea, there are so many factors to be considered. – user9732 Apr 12 '19 at 6:22
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    An alternative to a very tall antenna might be a balloon – Mawg says reinstate Monica Apr 12 '19 at 10:22
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Sooner or later you'll run out of terrestrial connectivity. Cables wont go everywhere you want to go. There are two methods for providing digital comms at sea - VHF and Satellite. You'll be pushing it to get useful Internet functionality via VHF, which leaves satellite as your best option. Satellites are what are providing you with GPS after all. Satellite is not just for phones - you're better off starting with a satellite data service than trying to modify a Satellite phone.

It doesn't sound like you have significant bandwidth requirements, so there are several options. In fact, in the last 12 months about a dozen more options became available as various companies have launched nanosatellites to provide global connectivity. There are many parameters to consider: geostationary options will only provide coverage in certain areas; global options might have long gaps in connectivity; there are tradeoffs between bandwidth and availability. Good luck!

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  • n the last 12 months about a dozen more options became available as various companies have launched nanosatellites to provide global connectivity you could greatly improve your answer by giving details. – Mawg says reinstate Monica Apr 14 '19 at 8:45
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    I was concerned about giving specific brand names that might be irrelevant in another 12 months. They are not hard to find in a search. For example: Sky and Space Global, Fleet Space, Myriota, Swarm Technologies, Hiber Global, Astrocast, Thales Alenia Space, Nexeya, Syrlinks, Kineis, Aerial & Maritime, AisTech, Analytical Space, Blink Astro, Helios Wire, exactEarth, Hongyan, Karten Space, Kepler Communications, Lacuna Space, Spire Global, Xingyun as well as existing solutions from Iridium, GlobalStar and ORBCOMM. Providing details would quickly grow into an essay! – Heath Raftery Apr 14 '19 at 8:57
  • Thanks & wish I could upvote you more. Just a few years ago, I knew of no alternative to SkyWave - and now they have been bought out :-( I am always on the look out for a low cost/byte satellite solution - who's the current leader? – Mawg says reinstate Monica Apr 14 '19 at 9:30

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