The article is not about an Internet connection, but about a point-to-point link to a probe on the moon.
They achieved a speed of 622 Mbit/s, which is the speed achieved in an STM-4 SDH link, something that existed 20 years ago here on Earth.
Back then, it was something you would see mostly on ISP backbones, but nowadays you’ll see FTTH (fibre to the home) Internet connections running at 1 Gbit/s and more.
I currently have a 400 Mbit/s connection at home (Docsis over coax). They just connected fibre to my building, which will give me access to at least 2 Gbit/s connections. Of course, either is much higher than what you can achieve over xDSL (ADSL up to about 20 Mbit/s or VDSL up to 100 Mbit/s or so). It’s just a matter of medium. There’s only so much you can transmit over decades-old thin, not twisted, not shielded telephone wiring. If you want more, fibre is a much better option.
Note that even wireless links (5G) can achieve more than that. The difficulty in their test is the distance (and probably also the relative movement).