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I would like to control a relay from over the internet.

I was thinking of making this using an Arduino and some wifi/ethernet shield. Searching the internet, I see a lot of shields and modules that make it possible to create a small "web server" to access the Arduino from the internet and display a simple webpage containing a user interface.

I want to at least build some kind of authentication (like asking a password in the GUI before controlling the relay). But if the connection is not secured and just plain HTTP, nothing like any authentication actually makes sense, since data (password) is sent in plain text, which is just too easy to eavesdrop. I would like to use HTTPS. Very often it's not clear to me if such a shield I mention, supports HTTPS. I don't know if it's even possible regarding the calculation capacity of a shield or an Adruino in general.

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Consider two possible alternatives:

  1. Use a raspberry Pi instead of an Arduino. You'll have a lot more capability.
  2. Use a web based service for the authentication, authorization etc (userID, password). You can make your own or base it on something like thingsboard.io or other iot providers.
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There is a question on Arduino Stack Exchange on this topic, How to get HTTPS on Arduino?. Check it out, there are multiple answers worth reading.

Furthermore Arduino supports many hardware nowadays that are more powerful than the 8-bit AVR based boards. Such new options are:

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The problem with saying "Arduino" is that is means many things.

The Arduino (original) hardware was a single chip 8-bit processor. There was no connectivity with that board, it came out in the 90s.

The Arduino IDE and software development has been extended to include many other processors, this has made it easier for non-computer programmers and non-hardware engineer types to do "Arduino" projects.

So, when you say "Arduino Boards" do you mean the original 8-bit boards manufactured by the Arduino Company or do you mean other boards NOT manufactured by the Arduino Company, but that use the Arduino IDE.

A very confusing state of affairs.

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