If you use only GPS geolocation or a local BLE location solver, then a cloud service is not required. However if you want to benefit from assisted-GPS, or WiFi geolocation, then the ThingPark Location Engine (cloud based) is required.
The main benefit of Assisted-GPS is that the GPS chip will not need to wait to have acquired the full satellite information (which requires to have a good signal as this information is transmitted using modulation that requires good SNR): you will get a much faster fix from cold-start situation with assisted GPS (typically <10s versus over a minute), this is particularly noticeable if your application requires indoor-outdoor tracking, e.g. people tracking who get i and out of buildings. Shorter fix time means lower power, by an order of magnitude. This fix also has lower accuracy than a full GPs fix, because GPs does local avaraging before sending the location via LoRaWAN, which is not possible with A-GPS (so you get a single fix with AGPS). Assisted GPS is the only option if you use the LR1110 chip which is not a full GPS. All Abeeway trackers have a full GPS chip, which is used first in AGPS mode to get a shorter fix time, and then switch to full GPS when all satellite data is available so you get better accuracy if/when needed.
WiFi geolocation is very useful of course for indoor location, but also in urban area where it can be used typically in over 80% of the cases and also consumes a lot less power than GPS. Abeeway trackers can also use WiFi positioning, and this requires access to a cloud database (via ThingPark location).
The bottomline is that cloud services from ThingPark Location make Abeeway trackers much lower power and increase battery life, and also makes GPS location faster and more robust. Abeeway has a patent called "LP-GPS" with further enhances AGPS by solving independently for time leveraging LPWAN synchronicity, further reducing the fix time.